A National Revival: The Rise of the Hoi Polloi

Despite the reverses suffered, Poland witnessed a spirited fight-back under the leadership of Kosciusko. By the Treaty of Tilsit (1807), a Polish buffer state was created under King Frederick Augustus I of Saxony.

The Polish cause saw further success when the Vienna Congress (1814-15) established a marginally independent Polish nation.

Surged by these successes, there arose a wave of mass uprisings throughout Poland. There was the November Revolution in 1830, revolutions in Prussia and Austria-occupied Poland and the famed January Revolution in 1863 in Russia-occupied Poland.

These revolts, though quite successful in the Austrian territories, were otherwise effectively crushed in Prussia and Russia.